African Wiki

Who is Africa ?


Surrounded by water from all directions, Africa is a continent with clearly defined borders. In the north it is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, in the northeast, is separated from Asia by the Suez Canal and farther by the Red Sea. From the east and southeast, it is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, from the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
The total number of independent states in Africa is 54. The transcontinental country in this region is Egypt, also having a small part of its territory in Asia, on the other side of the Suez Canal, but politically it is a member of the African Union.

Among the African countries, the biggest one is Algeria, occupying around 7% of the continent's territory. And the smallest nation is Seychelles, the worldwide famous luxurious beach holiday destination, occupying 115 islands stretching along the mainland's eastern coast.

Colorful Morocco is in the first place among the most popular travel spots in this part of the world, the second place belongs to South Africa, followed by Egypt and Tunisia.

The always up-to-date list of countries of Africa in alphabetical order

1. Algeria

(Arabic: الجزائر, al-Jazā’ir, Berber: Dzayer) is known officially as the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. Formerly referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, it is a North African country that, in terms of land area, ranks as the second largest in Africa (behind Sudan). It is also the largest on the Mediterranean Sea and the eleventh largest in the world.
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2. Angola


Angola is a Southern African nation whose varied terrain encompasses tropical Atlantic beaches, a labyrinthine system of rivers and Sub-Saharan desert that extends across the border into Namibia. The country's colonial history is reflected in its Portuguese-influenced cuisine and its landmarks including Fortaleza de São Miguel, a fortress built by the Portuguese in 1576 to defend the capital, Luanda.
Capital: Luanda
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3. Benin


Benin, a French-speaking West African nation, is a birthplace of the vodun (or “voodoo”) religion and home to the former Dahomey Kingdom from circa 1600–1900. In Abomey, Dahomey's former capital, the Historical Museum occupies two royal palaces with bas-reliefs recounting the kingdom’s past and a throne mounted on human skulls. To the north, Pendjari National Park offers safaris with elephants, hippos and lions.
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4. Botswana


Botswana, a landlocked country in Southern Africa, has a landscape defined by the Kalahari Desert and the Okavango Delta, which becomes a lush animal habitat during the seasonal floods. The massive Central Kalahari Game Reserve, with its fossilized river valleys and undulating grasslands, is home to numerous animals including giraffes, cheetahs, hyenas and wild dogs.
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5. Burkina Faso


Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa that covers an area of around 274,200 square kilometres and is bordered by Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwest.
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6. Burundi

The Republic of Burundi, in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa, is a landlocked country. It is bordered by Tanzania to the east and south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Rwanda to the north. Its population is estimated at 11,465,726 and its area is 28,000 sq. km. Bujumbura is the country’s capital. Lake Tanganyika is on Burundi’s southwestern border. Read More about Burundi



7. Cabo Verde

The Republic of Cape Verde, an island country, covers an island chain of 15 islands located in the central Atlantic. It sits 570 km off Western Africa. The island’s area is approximately 4,000 sq. km. They are of volcanic origin. Three are sandy, flat, and dry but the remaining ones are rocky. Rainfall is infrequent. The name derives from Cap Vert, on the Senegalese coast.



The Portuguese discovered and colonized the previously uninhabited islands in the 15th century. It became an important part of the slave trade due to its location. At several times, pirates like Sir Francis Drake attacked the islands. In the 1580s its capital at the time, Ribeira Grande, was taken twice. In 1832, Charles Darwin’s voyage visited. An economic crisis occurred when the slave trade declined in the 1800s. The islands had few resources and little Portuguese investment. This lack of support and Portugal’s refusal to give autonomy led to discontent. It culminated in 1975 when Amilcar Cabral led the country to independence. Read More about Cabo Verde


8. Cameron

Cameroon, on the Gulf of Guinea, is a Central African country of varied terrain and wildlife. Its inland capital, Yaoundé, and its biggest city, the seaport Douala, are transit points to ecotourism sites as well as beach resorts like Kribi – near the Chutes de la Lobé waterfalls, which plunge directly into the sea – and Limbe, where the Limbe Wildlife Centre houses rescued primates. Read More about Cameron

9. Central African Republic (CAR)
The Central African Republic, a landlocked country, borders Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo to the south, Cameroon to the west, and Chad to the north. Its land area is 240,000 sq. mi. The capital is Bangui.



The country is mostly savannas, but includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and a southern equatorial forest. Two thirds of the CAR sits in the Ubangi River basin, which flows into the Congo River. This, in turn, flows into Lake Chad.

France named the colony containing the CAR Ubangi-Chari. In 1958, it became a semi-autonomous French Community. On August 13, 1960, it became independent. The CAR was ruled for its first three decades by presidents not democratically chosen. International pressure reinforced local discontent after the Cold War ended. Read More about Central African Republic

10. Chad
Chad, officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon to the south-west, Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Read More about Chad

11. Comoros
Officially the Union of Comoros, Comoros is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. It is located off eastern Africa’s coast. It sits on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northwestern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique. The capital is Moroni. Its surface area is 1,862 sq. km. Comoros is Africa’s third smallest country in terms of land area. Its population is 798,000 making it the 6th smallest by population. Its population density is one of the highest in Africa. The islands’ culture and history are diverse. The Union of Comoros has three official languages, Comorian, Arabic, and French. Read More about Comoros
12. Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Formerly Zaire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is located in central Africa and has a small coastline. In Africa, it is the third largest country and the world’s 12th largest. It has Africa’s fourth highest population and the 18th highest in the world with 85,906,342 million people.



The country is often referred to as DR Congo, DROC, DRC, or RDC. It is also called Congo-Kinshasa after the capital. The country borders the Central African Republic and Sudan to the north. To the east, it borders Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, Zambia and Angola to the south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. In the east, Lake Tanganyika separates it from Tanzania. At Muanda, DR Congo has a 40 km coastline. There, the Congo River empties in the Gulf of Guinea. Read More about Congo, Democratic Republic of the
12. Congo, Democratic Republic of the

13. Congo, Republic of the

14. Cote d'Ivoire
Côte d'Ivoire is a West African country with beach resorts, rainforests and a French-colonial legacy. Abidjan, on the Atlantic coast, is the country’s major urban center. Its modern landmarks include zigguratlike, concrete La Pyramide and St. Paul's Cathedral, a swooping structure tethered to a massive cross. North of the central business district, Banco National Park is a rainforest preserve with hiking trails. Read More about Côte d'Ivoire

15. Djibouti
Djibouti’s history dates to thousands of years ago when hides were traded for items in ancient India, China, and Egypt. The Somali and Afar ethnic groups became the first Africans to embrace Islam based on close relations with groups in the Arabian Peninsula.

The land on the north side of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called Obock from 1862 to 1894. It was ruled by Somali Sultans. Treaties signed between 1883 and 1887 gave the French a foothold in the region. A permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti was formed by Leonce Legarde in 1894. He named the area French Somaliland. Read More about Djibouti

16. Egypt

17. Equatorial Guinea
The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is located in middle Africa and has an area of 28,000 sq. km. It is one of Africa’s smallest countries. While it is one of the most prosperous, wealth is concentrated in the government and elite. 70 percent of the population lives under the poverty threshold. Its population is 1,345,873 and includes the main Continental Region and the small offshore islands. The capital Malabo, is on Bioko Island.



The southernmost island is Annobon, sitting just south of the equator. The northernmost point is Bioko Island. The mainland is between the two islands and to the east and the Gulf of Guinea is to the west. It was formerly the Spanish colony known as Spanish Guinea. It is one of Africa’s few territories with Spanish as an official language. Read More about Equatorial Guinea

18. Eritrea
Eritrea is a northeast African country on the Red Sea coast. It shares borders with Ethiopia, Sudan and Djibouti. The capital city, Asmara, is known for its Italian colonial buildings, like St. Joseph's Cathedral, as well as art deco structures. Italian, Egyptian and Turkish architecture in Massawa reflect the port city's colorful history. Notable buildings here include St. Mariam Cathedral and the Imperial Palace. Read More about Eritrea

19. Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)
Eswatini or Swaziland, often called Ngwane or Swatini, is landlocked country in Southern Africa. South Africa borders the country to the north, south, and west and Mozambique to the east.



Swaziland is small and is no larger than 200 km north to south and 130 km east to west. The western part of Swaziland is mountainous and moves to a Lowveld eastern region. An escarpment of the Lemombo Mountains is on the eastern border with Mozambique and South Africa.



Swaziland’s area has been inhabited since prehistory. Most of the population today is ethic Swazis who speak siSwati. English is often a second language. The Swazi people descend from the Bantu who migrated to the area in the 15th and 16th centuries. The U.K. made the area a protectorate after the Anglo-Boer War. Swaziland earned independence in 1968.
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20. Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It has the continent’s second highest population at 109,358,444 and its surface area of 1,100,000 sq. km. is the tenth largest. Addis Ababa is the capital and the country is bordered by Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, and Eritrea to the north.
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21. Gabon
Gabon is a country in west central Africa. It shares borders with Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo to the east and south, and Equatorial Guinea to the northwest. To the west is the Gulf of Guinea. Its area is 270,000 sq. km. and its population is 2,096,745. Libreville is its capital.



There have been three presidents since the country’s independence from France on August 17, 1960. Gabon introduced a new constitution in the early 1990s with a more transparent multi-party system. Gabon’s small population and natural resources has made it one of the regions most prosperous countries.
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22. Gambia
Gambia is a West African county that is mainland Africa’s smallest. It is bordered by Senegal on all sides but the west, which it the Atlantic coast.

The borders generally follow the Gambia River, which flows through the middle of the country and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated 2019 population is 2.23 million, which ranks 146th in the world and the area is 10,500 sq. km.

Gambia was granted independence from the U.K. on February 18, 1965. It became part of the British Commonwealth. The capital city is Banjul.
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23. Ghana
The Republic of Ghana is a West African country bordered by Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, the Gulf of Guinea to the south, and Côte d’Ivoire to the west. Its name comes from the ancient Ghana Empire and means “Warrior King.”
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Akan Kingdoms inhabited the area in pre-colonial times. These included the Akwamu, Ashanti, and Fante states. After the Portuguese first made contact with the area in the 15th century, trade grew. The British Gold Coast Crown Colony was established in 1874.
24. Guinea

25.mGuinea-Bissau

26. Kenya

A country in East Africa, the Republic of Kenya borders the Indian Ocean to the southeast, Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, and Somalia to the northeast. Lake Victoria is shared between Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. The capital is Nairobi. The total area is 58,000 sq. km and the population is estimated to be 51,903,301 million (2018).
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27. Lesotho
Khoisan hunters were the first inhabitants of the area and were later replaced by Wasja-speaking tribes during the time of the Bantu migrations. Between the 3rd and 11th centuries, the Sotho-Tswana people colonized the South African region.

Lesotho was an entity under the Great King Moshoeshoe I in 1822. He formed his own clan and became its chief in 1804. He and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain between 1821 and 1823. His clan joined with former adversaries against the Lifaqane from 1818 to 1828.
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28. Liberia
The Republic of Liberia is on Africa’s west coast and shares borders with Guinea, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire, and the Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 4,947,300 million (2018) and has a total area of 111,369 sq. km.

Monrovia is the capital. Most of the country’s rainfall occurs in the rainy season. Harmattan winds arrive in the dry season. The Pepper Coast is mostly mangrove forest. The inlands population is sparse and opens to a grassland plateau.



Liberia’s history is unique due to the country’s relationship with the U.S. Liberia is one of only two countries, Ethiopia being the other, that was not part of the European Scramble for Africa. Freed American slaves, along with the help of a private organization called the American Colonization Society, founded and colonized the country from 1821-1822. It was believed the freed slaves would have greater equality and freedom there.
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29. Libya
Libya is located in North Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Egypt is to the east, Sudan to the southwest, Algeria and Tunisia to the west, and Chad and Niger to the south.

Libya is Africa’s 4th largest county by area and covers 1,800,000 sq. km. In the world, it is the 17th largest nation. 6,549,344 million live in Libya and 1.7 million in Tripoli, the capital. The total population is estimated to be 7,200,000 million (2018).

Libya’s flag is simply a green field, which is the only world flag with just one color and no other design.
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30. Madagascar
The Republic of Madagascar is an island nation off the southeast coast of Africa. Its main island is the fourth largest in the world.

Archaeologists estimate the island was first inhabited sometime before 200 AD by Austronesians from Borneo. Later, Bantu people migrated across the Mozambique Channel and mixed with the inhabitants. Arabs and East Africans arrived later. In the 19th century, Madagascar was ruled by the Merina kingdom. From 1890 to 1960, it was part of the French empire. In 1960, the country gained independence.
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31. Malawi
Malawi is a landlocked country in southeast Africa. It was formerly known as Nyasaland and is bordered by Tanzania to the northeast, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique to the east, south, and west. Lake Malawi separates the country from Mozambique. According to world population review Malawi has a population of 19,546,033 (2018) and an area of 118,484 sq. Km2. Lilongwe is the capital, and also the largest city.

The area was initially settled in the 10th century and was ruled by natives until 1891 when the British colonized it. After independence in 1964, Hastings Banda ruled the country as a one party state. He held power until 1994 when he was ousted. The current president is Arthur Mutharika, who was elected in May 2014. The country’s government is democratic and has multiple parties.
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32. Mali
Mali, a landlocked country in Western Africa, shares a border with Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d’Ivoire on the south, Guinea to the south-west, Senegal and Mauritania to the west, and Algeria to the north. According to world population review Mali’s population is estimated at 19,508,678 (2018) and the country’s size is 1,240,192 sq. km. Bamako is the capital. There are eight regions in Mali and its north reaches into the Sahara while the south contains the Niger and Senegal rivers. Agriculture and fishing are cornerstones of the economy, while resources include salt, gold, and uranium.
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33. Mauritania
The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is in North Africa and borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mali in the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest. Nouakchott is the capital and is located on the Atlantic coast.

In 2008, the government was overthrown in a military coup by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. Aziz left the military to run for president in 2009, which he won. The next presidential election will be held in 2019. President Mohammed Ould Abdel Aziz is constitutionally barred from running again. Read More about Mauritania

34. Mauritius
he Republic of Mauritius is an island nation in the southwest Indian Ocean off of Africa’s southeast coast. It sits 900 km east of Madagascar. Additional islands are also part of the country, including Agalega, Cargados, Carajos, and Rodrigues.

The island was uninhabited until the 1600s when it was first ruled by the Dutch and later the French. During the Napoleonic Wars, Britain controlled the area until its independence in 1968. Port Louis is the capital and the country’s area is 2,040 sq. km. Mauritius is a parliamentary republic that is part of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, La Francophonie, and the Commonwealth of Nations.. Read More about Mauritius

35. Morocco
Morocco is located in North Africa, world population review estimates Morocco’s population at 36,496,532 (2018). Including the disputed Western Sahara, its area is 710,850 sq. km. Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, another region that falls entirely within Western Sahara.

Its coast on the Atlantic Ocean moves past the Strait of Gibraltar to the Mediterranean Sea. Across the strait, Spain borders it to the north. Algeria borders to the east and Mauritania to the South. Read More about Morocco

36. Mozambique
Officially the Republic of Mozambique, Mozambique is in southeast Africa with the Indian Ocean to the east. Malawi and Zambia are to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest, and Tanzania to the north. The current population is 31,143,723- world population review (2018).

In 1498, Vasco da Gama explored the area and Portugal colonized it in 1505. It gained independence in 1975 and became the People’s Republic of Mozambique shortly after. An intense civil war took place between 1977 and 1992. The country’s name comes from the name the Portuguese gave the Island of Mozambique, which came from the name of an Arab trader living there.

The country belongs to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Commonwealth of Nations, and is an observer of La Francophonie. Read More about Mozambique

37. Namibia
Namibia is in southern Africa and borders the Atlantic Ocean to west, Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, and South Africa to the south and east. Namibia gained independence on March 21, 1990 after the Namibian War for Independence ended. Windhoek is the largest city. The country belongs to the U.N. the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Commonwealth of Nations, and the African Union.

Namibia is a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy and has a population of around 2,625,606 world population review (2018). Read More about Namibia

38. Niger
Niger is a landlocked country in West Africa that is named after the Niger River. Nigeria and Benin border it to the south, Mali and Burkina Faso to the west, Libya and Algeria to the north, and Chad to the east. Its total area is 1,270,000 sq. km and 80 percent of Niger is covered by the Sahara. Its population of more than 22,919,867 million people are mostly Muslim and live in the south and west. Niamey is the capital city.

Desertification and drought threaten the non-desert locations. Subsistence agriculture is a major part of the economy outside export areas in the fertile south and uranium ore. Poor education, poverty, the landlocked desert terrain, poor infrastructure, and environmental degradation handicap the country. Read More about Niger

39. Nigeria
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal constitutional republic located in West Africa. It shares borders with Benin, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger. In the south, its coast is in the Gulf of Guinea. The Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba are the largest ethnic groups. In Nigeria, approximately half are Muslim and half Christian. A small minority practice indigenous religions.

There is evidence that human habitation dates to 9000 BC. The area near the Cross River and Benue is believed to be the Bantu homeland. The Bantu migrated across most of southern and central Africa between the 1st and 2nd millennium BC.
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40. Rwanda
Rwanda is a unitary republic in central and eastern Africa. Uganda is to its north, Tanzania to the east, Burundi to the south, and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west. While the country is landlocked, it is noted for its lakes. Despite being close to the equator, the climate is temperate due to the altitude. The highest point is Mount Karisimbi. Tourism is important due to wildlife, including the mountain gorilla. Kigali, Gitarama, and Butare are the largest cities.
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41. Sao Tome and Principe
Sao Tome and Principe is an island nation off the western coast of Africa. Its official name is the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe. It was founded by Portuguese explorers who arrived on the feast day of Saint Thomas, the island’s namesake. Today it is the smallest Portuguese-speaking country. The country is made of two islands: Sao Tome and Principe. São Tomé is the larger southern island and lies slightly north of the equator. An extinct volcanic mountain range is part of both islands.



While Seychelles is the smallest country in African by population, Sao Tome and Principe is the second smallest. It’s the smallest country in the world that was never under control of the British, US, or European microstate. Sao Tome and Principe Population is estimated at 212,167 (2018).
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42. Senegal
Is a country in western Africa that is south of the Senegal River. The Atlantic Ocean is to the west. Mauritania is to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea-Bissau and Guinea to the south. The country completely surrounds The Gambia with the exception of Gambia’s small coastline on the Atlantic. Senegal’s area is 197,000 sq. km. and the population is estimated at over 16,619,225 million (2019). There are two seasons, the rainy and the dry.

The capital, Dakar, is on the country’s westernmost tip on the Cap-Vert peninsula. The Cape Verde Islands are approximately 300 miles off the coast. Trading areas were established on the coast during colonial times. St. Louis was French Western Africa’s capital before it moved to Dakar in 1902. In 1960, Dakar also became the capital of Senegal after independence from France.
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43. Seychelles
The Seychelles is an archipelago of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, off East Africa. It's home to numerous beaches, coral reefs and nature reserves, as well as rare animals such as giant Aldabra tortoises. Mahé, a hub for visiting the other islands, is home to capital Victoria. It also has the mountain rainforests of Morne Seychellois National Park and beaches, including Beau Vallon and Anse Takamaka.
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44. Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone is in West Africa and is bordered by Liberia to the southeast, Guinea to the north and east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest. Its area is 71,740 sq. km. The population is estimated at 7,838,523 million (2018). A former British colony, it is now a constitutional republic.

Sierra Leone’s climate is tropical with diverse environmental zones. The capital is Freetown, which is the economic center and largest city. Kenema, Koidu Town, Makeni, and Bo are other major cities. The country has rich natural resources and diverse ethnic groups.
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45. Somalia
Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa which is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden and Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, Ethiopia to the west, and Djibouti to the northwest.

Somalia’s ties to the Arab world allowed it to be accepted into the Arab League in 1974. Somalia also belongs to the African Union, the Organization of Islamic Conference, and the U.N. It supported anti-apartheid groups and Eritrean secessionists. The country has maintained a free market economy despite its instability.
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46. South Africa
South Africa is located at Africa’s southern tip and has 2,798 km of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. It borders Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Swaziland. Lesotho is a country completely surrounded by South Africa.

South Africa has diverse cultures and languages with eleven officially recognized languages in the constitution. Two originated in Europe: (1) Afrikaans came from Dutch and is spoken mostly by white South Africans and (2) South African English.
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47. South Sudan
South Sudan is a landlocked country in east-central Africa with Juba as its capital city. There are plans to move the capital to Ramciel in the future. The country borders Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, and Sudan to the north. South Sudan gained independence on July 9, 2011 after a referendum on independence passed with overwhelming support.
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48. Sudan
A landlocked country in east-central Africa with Khartoum as its capital city. The country borders Egypt to the north, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, the Central African Republic (CAR) to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.

Up until its separation from South Sudan in 2011, Sudan was the the largest country in Africa and the Arab world. The population is estimated at 42,256,346 million (2019).
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49. Tanzania
Tanzania is an East African country known for its vast wilderness areas. They include the plains of Serengeti National Park, a safari mecca populated by the “big five” game (elephant, lion, leopard, buffalo, rhino), and Kilimanjaro National Park, home to Africa’s highest mountain. Offshore lie the tropical islands of Zanzibar, with Arabic influences, and Mafia, with a marine park home to whale sharks and coral reefs.
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50. Togo
The Togolese Republic, also known as Togo, sits in West Africa. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, and is bordered on the north by Burkina Faso, Benin to the east, and Ghana on the west. Togo, with a population of over 8.19 million people, is 57,000 square kilometers (22,000 sq mi) in area. Togo’s capital is Lomé, located in the Gulf of Guinea. Togo is a sub-Saharan nation, with a good growing climate that supports its dependence on agriculture.

While many languages are spoken in Togo, mainly those of the Gbe family, French is its official language. People with indigenous beliefs make up the largest religious group, but Christians and Muslims also make up a significant minority. A United Nations member, Togo is also a member of the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie and Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of the Islamic Conference, and the African Union.
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51. Tunisia
The Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost African country and is bordered by Algeria, Libya, and the Mediterranean Sea. It has a population of just over 11.78 million and an area of 165,000 sq. km. Tunis is the capital and is in the north-east part of the country.

Of the nations along the Atlas mountain range, Tunisia is the smallest. The Sahara desert is in the south with fertile areas in the remainder of the country. Tunisia has played an important role in history. It was the location of the city of Carthage and later the Roman Africa Province. The Vandals occupied it in the 5th century, the Byzantines in the 6th, and the Arabs in the 8th.
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52. Uganda
Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa whose diverse landscape encompasses the snow-capped Rwenzori Mountains and immense Lake Victoria. Its abundant wildlife includes chimpanzees as well as rare birds. Remote Bwindi Impenetrable National Park is a renowned mountain gorilla sanctuary. Murchison Falls National Park in the northwest is known for its 43m-tall waterfall and wildlife such as hippos.
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53. Zambia
Zambia is a landlocked Southern African country bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola. Lusaka is the capital.The estimated 2019 population of Zambia is 18.14 million, which ranks 66th in the world.

Hunter-gatherers inhabited the area for thousands of years. Starting in the 18th century, Europeans began sporadic visits. The British gradually occupied Zambia as a protectorate of Northern Rhodesia in the late 1800s.
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54. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in southern Africa known for its dramatic landscape and diverse wildlife, much of it within parks, reserves and safari areas. On the Zambezi River, Victoria Falls make a thundering 108m drop into narrow Batoka Gorge, where there’s white-water rafting and bungee-jumping. Downstream are Matusadona and Mana Pools national parks, home to hippos, rhinos and birdlife.
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