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Early Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes
How can you tell if you have diabetes? Most early symptoms are from higher-than-normal levels of glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood.

The warning signs can be so mild that you don't notice them. That's especially true of type 2 diabetes. Some people don't find out they have it until they get problems from long-term damage caused by the disease.

With type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually happen quickly, in a matter of days or a few weeks. They're much more severe, too.

Early Signs of Diabetes
Both types of diabetes have some of the same telltale warning signs.

Hunger and fatigue. Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy. But your cells need insulin to take in glucose. If your body doesn't make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can't get into them and you have no energy. This can make you hungrier and more tired than usual.
Peeing more often and being thirstier. The average person usually has to pee between four and seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may go a lot more. Why? Normally, your body reabsorbs glucose as it passes through your kidneys. But when diabetes pushes your blood sugar up, your kidneys may not be able to bring it all back in. This causes the body to make more urine, and that takes fluids. The result: You'll have to go more often. You might pee out more, too. Because you're peeing so much, you can get very thirsty. When you drink more, you'll also pee more.
Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because your body is using fluids to make pee, there's less moisture for other things. You could get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itchy.
Blurred vision. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and can’t focus.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
These tend to show up after your glucose has been high for a long time.

Yeast infections. Both men and women with diabetes can get these. Yeast feeds on glucose, so having plenty around makes it thrive. Infections can grow in any warm, moist fold of skin, including:
Between fingers and toes
Under breasts
In or around sex organs
Slow-healing sores or cuts. Over time, high blood sugar can affect your blood flow and cause nerve damage that makes it hard for your body to heal wounds.
Pain or numbness in your feet or legs. This is another result of nerve damage.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
You might notice:

Unplanned weight loss. If your body can't get energy from your food, it will start burning muscle and fat for energy instead. You may lose weight even though you haven't changed how you eat.
Nausea and vomiting. When your body resorts to burning fat, it makes ketones. These can build up in your blood to dangerous levels, a possibly life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones can make you feel sick to your stomach.
Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes
High blood sugar during pregnancy usually has no symptoms. You might feel a little thirstier than normal or have to pee more often.

Warning Signs of Diabetes Complications
Signs of type 2 diabetes' complications may include:

Slow-healing sores or cuts
Itchy skin (usually around the vaginal or groin area)
Frequent yeast infections
Recent weight gain
Velvety, dark skin changes of the neck, armpit, and groin, called acanthosis nigricans
Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet
Decreased vision
Impotence or erectile dysfunction (ED)
Learn about what you can do to lower your risk of diabetes complications.

Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, happens when the level of sugar or glucose in your blood drops too low to fuel the body. You might feel:
Shaky
Nervous or anxious
Sweaty, chilly, or clammy
Cranky or impatient
Confused
Lightheaded or dizzy
Hungry
Sleepy
Weak
Tingly or numb in your lips, tongue, or cheeks
You might notice:

Fast heartbeat
Pale skin
Blurred vision
Headache
Nightmares or crying when you sleep
Coordination problems
Seizures
Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, causes many of the warning signs of diabetes listed above, including:

Heavy thirst
Blurry vision
Peeing a lot
More hunger
Numb or tingling feet
Fatigue
Sugar in your urine
Weight loss
Vaginal and skin infections
Slow-healing cuts and sores
Blood glucose over 180 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl)
Diabetic Coma
Its official name is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). This serious complication can lead to diabetic coma and even death with either type of diabetes, though it’s more common in type 2. It happens when your blood sugar gets too high and your body gets severely dehydrated. Symptoms include:

Blood sugar over 600 mg/dl
Dry, parched mouth
Extreme thirst
Warm, dry skin that doesn’t sweat
High fever (over 101 F)
Sleepiness or confusion
Vision loss
Hallucinations
Weakness on one side of your body
When to Call Your Doctor
If you're older than 45 or have other risks for diabetes, it's important to get tested. When you spot the condition early, you can avoid nerve damage, heart trouble, and other complications.

As a general rule, call your doctor if you:

Feel sick to your stomach, weak, and very thirsty
Are peeing a lot
Have a bad belly ache
Are breathing more deeply and faster than normal
Have sweet breath that smells like nail polish remover (This is a sign of very high ketones.

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What Causes Flank Pain and How to Treat It

Causes
Symptoms
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Overview

Flank pain refers to discomfort in your upper abdomen or back and sides. It develops in the area below the ribs and above the pelvis. Usually, the pain is worse on one side of your body.

Most people experience flank pain at least once in their life, and the discomfort is usually temporary. However, constant or severe flank pain may indicate a serious medical condition, such as dehydration or a urinary tract infection. Kidney stones or another kidney problem may also cause persistent flank pain.

Though flank pain is often a symptom of a kidney problem, it can also be the result of other medical conditions if it occurs along with additional symptoms. It’s important to see your doctor if you have chronic or severe flank pain, especially if you’re also experiencing other symptoms.


Causes of flank pain
Some of the more common causes of flank pain include:

a kidney infection
a kidney abscess
kidney stones
dehydration
a bladder infection
shingles
Tietze’s syndrome
arthritis, especially spinal arthritis
a spinal fracture
disc disease
a pinched nerve in the back
a muscle spasm
Less common causes of flank pain include:

kidney disease
pneumonia
pancreatitis
appendicitis
a blockage in the urinary tract
an inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease
a renal infarct, which occurs when a blood clot blocks the blood supply to the kidney
shingles
an abdominal aortic aneurysm
Symptoms associated with flank pain
Flank pain may be achy and dull or cramp-like and sharp. It may come and go in waves.

Symptoms of a kidney problem
The pain is likely due to a kidney problem if you also have the following symptoms:

a rash
a fever
dizziness
nausea
vomiting
constipation
diarrhea
blood in the urine
pain during urination
You should call your doctor right away if you’re experiencing any of the above symptoms along with prolonged flank pain.

Symptoms of dehydration
You should also seek immediate medical care if you’re experiencing persistent pain along with these symptoms of dehydration:

extreme thirst
a absence of sweat
dizziness
a fast pulse
a dry, sticky mouth
headaches
a fever
constipation
dark urine
decreased urine output
It’s important to correct dehydration right away. When you lose too much water from the body, the organs, cells, and tissues fail to function as they should. This can lead to dangerous complications, including shock.


Diagnosing the cause of flank pain
During your appointment, your doctor will try to identify the underlying cause of your flank pain. Be prepared to answer questions about:

the location of the pain
when the pain began
what the pain feels like
how often you experience the pain
how long you experience the pain
what other symptoms you have
Your doctor will also use blood tests and imaging tests to determine the cause of your flank pain. Imaging tests, such as ultrasounds or X-rays, allow your doctor to look deep within your body. They can reveal problems in the organs, tissues, and muscles.

Before performing these tests, your doctor may inject a contrast dye into one of your veins. They do this to improve the quality of the images. This makes it easier to identify any obstructions in your blood vessels or organs. The dye is usually iodine, and it rarely causes side effects.

Other diagnostic tests your doctor may recommend include:

an abdominal CT scan, which is a type of specialized X-ray that can show cross-sectional images of the abdomen
a cystoscopy, which is a minor procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with an attached camera into the bladder
a urinalysis, which is a simple urine test
a urine culture to detect bacteria in the urine
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Treatment for flank pain
Rest is the primary treatment for any form of flank pain. Minor flank pain typically resolves with a combination of rest and physical therapy. Your doctor may also recommend specific exercises you can do for quick relief from muscle spasms.

Treatment for flank pain due to inflammation
For flank pain due to inflammation, such as can occur with infections and arthritis, the treatment will depend on the specific condition.

Kidney infections may require hospitalization. Your doctor will give you antibiotics if you have a kidney infection. They may give these antibiotics to you intravenously, or through a vein.

Physical therapy and exercise programs can often treat pain due to arthritis in the spine. Your doctor may also prescribe an anti-inflammatory medication, which will reduce the inflammation and discomfort. In some cases, people need surgery to correct a spinal problem.

Treatment for kidney stones
You’ll need to take pain medications and drink lots of fluids to encourage the passing of the kidney stone. In most cases, kidney stones don’t require surgery.

However, your doctor may perform a minor procedure called lithotripsy if larger kidney stones can’t easily exit your body during urination. Lithotripsy involves the use of high-frequency sound waves to break up the kidney stones so they can pass through the ureters.

The ureters are the tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder. Your doctor may also use other surgical techniques to remove the stones.

Depending on your level of pain, your doctor may recommend over-the-counter or prescription pain relief medications. You may need to stay in the hospital. Talk to your doctor if you continue to experience intense or prolonged flank pain even after treatment.

Preventing flank pain
You may be able to prevent flank pain by:

drinking at least eight glasses of water per day
limiting how much alcohol you drink
practicing safe sex and hygiene
eating a diet of mainly vegetables, fruits, and lean proteins
exercising at least three times per week

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